top of page

Timeline Analysis Overview and Its Use In Memory Forensics

Author: Kyle Shubin, Senior Manager

Introduction to Timeline Analysis

Timeline analysis in digital forensics is a technique for constructing a timeline of events using data extracted during forensic examinations. For instance, in a case of unauthorized access, timeline analysis can reveal the sequence of actions leading up to the breach, the actions taken during the breach, and the actions taken after the breach. This technique is pivotal in understanding the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after a cyber incident. Timeline analysis can be performed on various systems, including computers, servers, and mobile devices.

Systems for Performing Timeline Analysis

Timeline analysis is a versatile technique that can be conducted on systems with volatile and non-volatile memories, including operating systems like Windows, Linux, and macOS. It's reassuring to know that each system may require specific tools and methods to extract and analyze the timeline data effectively, but the core technique remains the same.

Appropriate Timing for Timeline Analysis

Timeline analysis is instrumental in cases of unauthorized access, data theft, malware infections, and system intrusions. It should be employed when a detailed reconstruction of events is essential to the investigation, such as understanding the order of file accesses and network connections.

Comparison with Other Forensic Analysis Techniques

Unlike other forensic analyses that might focus on recovering deleted data or analyzing a snapshot of a system’s state at a single point in time, timeline analysis provides a chronological sequence of actions. This can offer more comprehensive insights into the behavior of users or malware over time.

Benefits and Disadvantages


  • Provides a chronological view of events.

  • It helps in identifying the origin of a security breach.

  • Can correlate data from multiple sources to validate events.


  • It is time-consuming and may require large storage to manage the timeline data.

  • Constructing accurate timelines is complex, especially when logs are manipulated or deleted.

Technical Steps for Performing Timeline Analysis Using Volatility

Volatility is a powerful framework that supports the analysis of volatile memory from multiple systems, making it an ideal tool for timeline analysis in diverse environments​ ​. This open-source framework (available at Volatility Foundation)  is widely used in the digital forensics community for its robust capabilities and extensive support for various operating systems.


Commands and Procedures:

  1. Data Acquisition: Begin with a secure memory dump using tools like FTK Imager or Winpmem.

  2. Basic Analysis: Identify system details using: ‘volatility -f [memory_dump] imageinfo’

  3. Timeline Creation: To create a timeline, use the following command in Volatility: ‘volatility -f [memory_dump] --profile=[profile] timeliner’. This command will correlate time-stamped data from various artifacts like file accesses and process creation, creating a chronological view of events.

  4. Export Timeline: Command ‘volatility -f [memory_dump] --profile=[profile] timeliner --output=csv --output-file=[timeline.csv]’ helps in exporting data for offline analysis.

  5. Detailed Analysis: Examine the CSV output to identify anomalies and correlate events timeline to specific incidents.




Timeline analysis is a critical component of forensic investigations that helps in the accurate reconstruction of events. Using tools like Volatility enhances the capability to perform deep memory analysis, essential for thorough digital investigations. However, the effectiveness of timeline analysis largely depends on the proper execution of the steps and commands as mentioned, and the analyst’s ability to interpret complex data accurately. This underscores the importance of training and expertise in digital forensics.


Need help developing or testing your incident response and digital forensics capabilities? TBDCyber has experienced incident responders and forensics consultants that can help.

25 views0 comments


bottom of page